In his Ecclesiastical History, Bede tells where the pagan “idols once stood” because?

Question by Sarah: In his Ecclesiastical History, Bede tells where the pagan “idols once stood” because?
A. People still worship there
B. he had authenticated his information with physical evidence
C. he liked unnecessary details
D. he made up facts to lend credence to his history

Best answer:

Answer by Let My People Go
So, how ARE things at your Washington law firm today, anyway?

Add your own answer in the comments!

The History of The Pentacle And The Pentagram

Originally, both the pentagram and the pentacle were words used to describe a five-pointed star. As time past, the two words took on different meanings. The pentagram continued to describe the star, where the pentacle describes the five-pointed star encased in a circle.

The pentagram and pentacle are symbols of magic. Each point of the star corresponds to one of the four elements, earth, air, fire and water and the top point represents spirit. Spirit usually points upwards. This represents wisdom and spirituality ruling over man or religious enlightenment before the material and the mundane. An inverted pentagram represents man and the material before spirituality.

The circle that surrounds the star in a pentacle has several meanings. Some believe it represents the universe. Others view it as the encompassing womb of the mother Goddess. Yet others link it with the circle of protection used during Ritual or magical workings.

Numerous people and religions throughout history have used the pentagram. The Ancient Mesopotamians were one of the first to utilize the pentagram. They used it as a Royal seal to represent their authority, which reached to the four corners of the Earth. The Ancient Greeks called it the Pentalpha, as it contains five “A’s” and considered the symbol a sign of perfection. The Gnostics related the pentagram to magic and the mysteries of the night and to the Druids it was a symbol of their Goddess and God. In Egypt, it stood for the “underground womb” and was connected with the great pyramids. To the Celtic people, the pentagram was a sign of the Goddess Morgan and during the medieval times, it was a symbol of truth and protection against evil. The Hebrew people associated it with truth and the first five books of the old testament of the Bible. Even early Christians used the pentagram; to them it represented the five wounds of Christ.

During the Inquisition and the Witch Trials, the pentagram was much slandered and maligned. The ancient symbol that had always represented truth, protection, spirituality and the creative power, all of sudden turned into something sinister and diabolical. Much like the Pagan Horned Gods, such as Pan, the Pentagram became associated with Satan and for the first time in its long history was viewed as evil.

For fear of persecution, followers of the old religions went underground and took their symbols with them. They stayed hidden until well into the 19th Century. The pentacle re-emerged in the mid 1900s, becoming a symbol for Wiccans, Witches and other Pagans. Unfortunately, the Church of Satan also adopted the symbol. The Satanic Church used the inverted pentacle to represent their Deity. Modern-day Pagans, who did not want to be associated with Satanists, began to relate the inverted pentagram with dark magic and the upright pentagram with good.

The antiquity of the pentagram is certain, though its meanings and associations have changed and evolved over time. Today it is a widespread symbol used by Pagans throughout the world. To them it is a protective symbol associated with magic and spirituality. Sadly, Hollywood has done much to malign the pentacle, using it in numerous horror movies, further associating it with Satan worship and demons. It is a shame that such an Ancient and sacred symbol is so misunderstood.

Written by Patricia Cartwright
Freelance writer and Artist, Dog rescue worker and enthusiast

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History Of Wicca

The history of wicca is a very interesting topic.  Mainly due to the controversy surrounding this religion in modern years.  The histoy of wicca haecvdp and shrouded with innuendo and lies.  We at www.allaboutwitchcraft.blogspot.com are trying to set the facts straight.  We will work very hard to make sure the history of wicca is known. Wicca effectively began with a man named Gerald Gardner in the mid 20th century. Many people give the year 1954 as its inception, because this is when Gardner published Witchcraft Today. .

Gardner’s Wicca was initiatory, and Gardnerian Wicca continues to be so to this day – if you’re not a member, you can’t participate. You can’t even learn a great deal about them. Other initiatory Traditions also emerged, and Gardner embraced them as being branches of the Old Religion. Eventually, others started to emerge that claimed no formal membership in the Old Religion but who nevertheless followed and practiced its ways. All of these practices were bound up under the term witchcraft, which became synonymous with Wicca. Today, those terms are frequently separated, but who falls under what is still debated.

Wicca certainly bears the influence of older pagan (and non-pagan) traditions, but they are pieces – sometimes tiny pieces – fit together into new meanings and context. Evidence continues to be entirely lacking that anything like Wicca existed in ancient times, and it bears many marks of modern thought, such as the arrangement of Maid/Mother/Crone, which was first expressed in 1949. Was Gardner taught something by Dafo? Probably. Possibly he even believed that she was teaching him something old. She probably did not hand him Wicca as a developed package, however. Even Gardner admitted that the rituals were “fragmentary,” justifying the need for him to supplement them with more modern material.

Some Wiccans feel they are baseless without an ancient foundation beneath their practices. The truth is your base is pretty shaky if it depends upon ancient pedigree for you to consider it legitimate. It is not that Wicca has no foundation. That foundation is simply somewhere other than where some once thought. All religions are new at some point. Wicca’s foundation (at least it’s public, non-oathbound face) is Gardner, with roots that snake out and draw upon all manner of source material, including considerable connections with the 19th and 20th century occult revival, which in turn have complex roots in older traditions.

That is the basic history of wicca.  We hope you join us at www.allaboutwitchcraft.blogspot.com for more information.  We will be posting daily recipes and spells.  We hope to shed the light and have fun.  Please remeber to set the record straight when it comes to the history of wicca.

The History Of Zen Meditation


by araki

Article by Bruce Channers

The history of Zen meditation has its origins in Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. Some believe that it originated from yogic methods. Buddhism entered China centuries ago via a monk called Bodhidharma who visited China to teach Buddhism and blended with Taoism and its principles and practices were adopted. These practices include vegetarianism, avoiding alcohol, emptiness, etc. Gradually ‘Chan’ or Zen Buddhism became a major part of Chinese Buddhism and also created a huge body of scriptures, in spite of the fact that the transmission of these principles does not involve words. Zen meditation has also spread to the Americas and Europe and is widely practiced.

There is hardly anyone who has not heard about the history of Zen meditation today, with the concept of Zen so popularly being discussed wherever there is any talk about meditation. Zen or sitting meditation, as it is called, involves sitting in a series of positions and relaxing the body and mind to bare oneself to oneness with nature. As the specific positions are followed, distracting thoughts exit as the heart rate lowers, gentle breathing follows and the individual transcends to the meditative state of reflection. The energy that results from this leads to a connection between the soul, mind and body.

Throughout the history of Zen meditation, the practice is to have your mind in the current moment – there is no contemplation on the past or future. Zen meditation focuses the mind on the thought of the moment, which basically means that you mentally travel to nothingness. Instead you aim for a blank mind that is clear, clean, and calm.

The Sequence Of Steps Involved In A Typical Zen Meditation Practice:

* Become conscious of your inhaled breath and exhaled breath.

* As the breathing gets deeper and slower, focus on them and feel the sense of peace.

* During the inhaled breath focus on the physical body. During the exhaled breath get each part of your body to relax starting with the shoulders and gradually working towards other parts of the body.

* The inhaled breath helps you relax the various parts of the body and the exhaled breath helps you appreciate and empathize with its needs.

* Next, get your facial muscles to relax one by one and in the process, relay a gentle smile to different parts of your body.

* As you experience oneness with your body, ensure that all the muscles are relaxed.

* Your inhaled breath will make you conscious to the joy of life, the wonders of breathing, seeing and hearing.

* Bring yourself back to focusing on your inhaled and exhaled breath – to the current moment.

* Your posture of sitting at this stage will make you feel in control of yourself, your body, your soul and mind.

The above steps flow into each other through regular practice of Zen meditation.

Za’zen is said to be the core of the Zen meditation process and aims at making a major shift in our attitude towards life. It tries to release the pressure of expectations and develop acceptance and appreciation for what is, and not what is expected. This is the basis from which the history of Zen meditation evolved.

To discover the shocking, fascinating and unusual secrets of zen meditation music, be sure to check out Online Meditation Guru now.










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